Identify which DNA is bacterial and which is eukaryotic.

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Case Study
by Full Tilt AheadFull Tilt Ahead
Lesson 1 of 1
The Farmer’s Dilemma
Read Before You Start
Read pages 1 and 2 of “The Farmer’s Dilemma” from the pdf below before you continue the course.
Appendix 1 – Module 4 – Bacterial DNA Case Study JMBE.pdf
155.5 KB

Part 1 – Mr. Rawley’s Presentation
Convinced that the technology for transgenic plant production won’t work, Mr. Rawley gives a presentation on the difference between eukaryotic and bacterial DNA.
Identify which DNA is bacterial and which is eukaryotic
In the midst of his presentation, the projector slides for Mr. Rawley’s presentation get smudged. To help illustrate his point, help him label the figures correctly.
Which figure A or B, is of bacterial DNA?
Which figure, A or B, is of eukaryotic DNA?
Answer questions in a separate document.
Differences in DNA
DNA Replication
Listen to Mr. Rawley’s thoughts on whether or not transgenic plants can work.
CONTINUE
Answer questions in a separate document.
1. Is the structure of DNA and replication of the DNA basically the same or basically different in bacteria and eukaryotes? Would a plant be able to replicate Bacterial DNA that was inserted in to the plant genome?
2. Review the basic process of transcription in bacteria and in eukaryotes. Prepare a statement for Mr. Rawley that addresses the basic molecular process of transcription. Note if the process in bacteria is basically the same or basically different in eukaryotes.
Part 2 – Genetic Sequencing
Mr. Rawley is not convinced that bacterial DNA will be expressed in a eukaryotic cell. “I want to see the gene! I want you to show me that the gene will code for a protein in a eukaryotic cell.”
Displaying the Sequence
To show Mr. Rawley and the audience the gene will code for a protein in a eukaryotic cell, you decide to show them the gene sequence.
A student helper retrieves the sequence from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and displays it on the projector.
START
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DNA Sequence
1 agtaaaatta gttgcacttt gtgcattttt tcataagatg agtcatatgt tttaaattgt
61 agtaatgaaa aacagtatta tatcataatg aattggtatc ttaataaaag agatggaggt
121 aacttATGga taacaatccg aacatcaatg aatgaattcc ttataattgt ttaagtaacc
181 ctgaagtaga agtattaggt ggagaaagaa tagaaactgg ttacacccca atcgatattt
241 ccttgtcgct aacgcaattt cttttgagtg aatttgttcc cggtgctgga tttgtgttag
…….
3601 gagaaacgga aggaacattt atcgtggaca gcgtggaatt actccttatg gaggaatag
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Sequence Mistake
You decide to give the audience cards with all the codons. As you go through the sequence, each person will bring their codon card to the front of the room and you will show how the codon cards will be translated to amino acids.
You begin reading the sequence at nucleotide #126, which GenBank has indicated as the first nucleotide of the start codon (ATG).
As you are underlining the sets of three nucleotides and discussing how each corresponds to a codon in the mRNA and an amino acid in the protein, you read ahead and notice that your student helper must have made a mistake!
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Finding the right sequence
To rectify the situation, you double check the sequence on GenBank.
1. Choose a Nucleotide search and type in Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein Cry1Ac.
2. Choose the sequence published by Tzeng,C.-C. This is designated accession AY122057 by GenBank (you can also use this Accession Number as your search string to find the correct record) .
3. Begin looking at the sequence at nucleotide #126—this is where the coding sequence of Cry1Ac begins. Compare the NCBI sequence to the sequence that was on the overhead. Can you find the mistake in the sequence that was used in the presentation?
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START AGAIN
Finding the mistake
Answer questions in a separate document.
· 1
1
If the nucleotides in the gene were changed as indicated in the mistake sequence, what type of mutation would this be? Explain.
· 2
2
The DNA shown is the + strand of the double stranded DNA that makes up the crygene. What would the mRNA sequence be when the minus strand DNA is transcribed? Give the first 33 bases. What would the amino acid sequence be when the mRNA is translated? Give the first 10 amino acids.
· 3
3
How is the protein product of this DNA different from the Bt toxin that would be made if the gene did not have a mutation? Make a prediction as to the functionality of this protein compared to Bt toxin.

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